Single-sample face recognition under varying lighting conditions based on logarithmic total variation

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Journal Article
Signal, Image and Video Processing, 2019, 13 (4), pp. 657 - 665
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© 2018, Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature. The logarithmic total variation (LTV) algorithm is a classical algorithm that is proposed to address the illumination interference in face recognition. Some state-of-the-art techniques based on LTV assume that the illumination component mainly lies in the low-frequency features among face images. However, these techniques adopt unsuitable methods to process low-frequency features, resulting in final unsatisfactory recognition rates. In this paper, we propose an improved illumination normalization method based on the LTV method, called the RETINA&TH-LTV algorithm. In this algorithm, the retina model is utilized to eliminate most of the illumination component in low-frequency features. Then, an advanced contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization technique is proposed to remove the residual lighting component. At the same time, through realizing threshold-value filtering on high-frequency features, the enhancement of facial features is achieved. Finally, the processed frequency features are combined to form a robust holistic feature image, which is then utilized for recognition. Insufficient training images in face recognition are also taken into consideration in this research. Comparative experiments for single-sample face recognition are conducted on YALE B, CMU PIE and our self-built driver databases. The nearest neighbor classifier and extended sparse representation classifier are employed as classification methods. The results indicate that the RETINA&TH-LTV algorithm has promising performance, especially in serious illumination and insufficient training sample conditions.
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