Sensing OFDM Signal: A Deep Learning Approach

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Journal Article
IEEE Transactions on Communications, 2019, 67 (11), pp. 7785 - 7798
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© 1972-2012 IEEE. Spectrum sensing plays a critical role in dynamic spectrum sharing, a promising technology to address the radio spectrum shortage. In particular, sensing of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals, a widely accepted multi-carrier transmission paradigm, has received paramount interest. Despite various efforts, noise uncertainty, timing delay and carrier frequency offset (CFO) still remain as challenging problems, significantly degrading the sensing performance. In this work, we develop two novel OFDM sensing frameworks utilizing the properties of deep learning networks. Specifically, we first propose a stacked autoencoder based spectrum sensing method (SAE-SS), in which a stacked autoencoder network is designed to extract the hidden features of OFDM signals for classifying the user's activities. Compared to the conventional OFDM sensing methods, SAE-SS is significantly superior in the robustness to noise uncertainty, timing delay, and CFO. Moreover, SAE-SS requires neither any prior information of signals (e.g., signal structure, pilot tones, cyclic prefix) nor explicit feature extraction algorithms which however are essential for the conventional OFDM sensing methods. To further improve the sensing accuracy of SAE-SS, especially under low SNR conditions, we propose a stacked autoencoder based spectrum sensing method using time-frequency domain signals (SAE-TF). SAE-TF achieves higher sensing accuracy than SAE-SS using the features extracted from both time and frequency domains, at the cost of higher computational complexity. Through extensive simulation results, both SAE-SS and SAE-TF are shown to achieve notably higher sensing accuracy than that of state of the art approaches.
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