Introduction: Membrane desalination today, past, and future

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2018, pp. xxv - xlvi
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© 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. In recent decades, many regions of the world have suffered from water scarcity, which is one of the most critical issues in the world. The main challenge is to supply freshwater to water shortage regions. In addition, waterborne illness has been caused through the consumption of the contaminated potable water in these regions. Increasing demands of potable water and the deficiency of surface water resources led to the development of desalination technologies, which obtain freshwater from seawater. This chapter addresses general information on desalination technologies in terms of the historical development, current status, and future prospects. It begins with the description of backgrounds in terms of the development of desalination technologies. Section 2 is an overview of the historical development of desalination technologies, including multistage flash, multieffect distillation, and reverse osmosis. Section 3 focuses on the reduction of energy consumption of the desalination technologies and increase of the permeate volume by energy recovery device, improved membrane, and hybrid conventional process. In Section 4, several alternative desalination technologies, membrane fabrication techniques, and brine management methods are introduced. Future trends of desalination technologies are pointed out in the final section.
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