Molecular signaling of G-protein-coupled receptor in chronic heart failure and associated complications.

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Journal Article
Drug Development Research, 2020, 81, (1), pp. 23-31
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The well-known condition of heart failure is a clinical syndrome that results when the myocardium's ability to pump enough blood to meet the body's metabolic needs is impaired. Most of the cardiac activity is maintained by adrenoceptors, are categorized into two main α and β and three distinct subtypes of β receptor: β1-, β2-, and β3-adrenoceptors. The β adrenoreceptor is the main regulatory macro proteins, predominantly available on heart and responsible for down regulatory cardiac signaling. Moreover, the pathological involvement of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1)/angiotensin II (Ang II)/angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) axis and beneficial ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas receptor axis also shows protective role via Gi βγ, during heart failure these receptors get desensitized or internalized due to increase in the activity of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and GRK5, responsible for phosphorylation of G-protein-mediated down regulatory signaling. Here, we investigate the various clinical and preclinical data that exhibit the molecular mechanism of upset level of GRK change the cardiac activity during failing heart.
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