Upconversion Nonlinear Structured Illumination Microscopy.

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Journal Article
Nano letters, 2020, 20, (7), pp. 4775-4781
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Video-rate super-resolution imaging through biological tissue can visualize and track biomolecule interplays and transportations inside cellular organisms. Structured illumination microscopy allows for wide-field super resolution observation of biological samples but is limited by the strong extinction of light by biological tissues, which restricts the imaging depth and degrades its imaging resolution. Here we report a photon upconversion scheme using lanthanide-doped nanoparticles for wide-field super-resolution imaging through the biological transparent window, featured by near-infrared and low-irradiance nonlinear structured illumination. We demonstrate that the 976 nm excitation and 800 nm upconverted emission can mitigate the aberration. We found that the nonlinear response of upconversion emissions from single nanoparticles can effectively generate the required high spatial frequency components in the Fourier domain. These strategies lead to a new modality in microscopy with a resolution below 131 nm, 1/7th of the excitation wavelength, and an imaging rate of 1 Hz.
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