Forced phase-locked response of a nonlinear system with time delay after Hopf bifurcation

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Journal Article
Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 2005, 25 (2), pp. 461 - 473
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The trivial equilibrium of a nonlinear autonomous system with time delay may become unstable via a Hopf bifurcation of multiplicity two, as the time delay reaches a critical value. This loss of stability of the equilibrium is associated with two coincident pairs of complex conjugate eigenvalues crossing the imaginary axis. The resultant dynamic behaviour of the corresponding nonlinear non-autonomous system in the neighbourhood of the Hopf bifurcation is investigated based on the reduction of the infinite-dimensional problem to a four-dimensional centre manifold. As a result of the interaction between the Hopf bifurcating periodic solutions and the external periodic excitation, a primary resonance can occur in the forced response of the system when the forcing frequency is close to the Hopf bifurcating periodic frequency. The method of multiple scales is used to obtain four first-order ordinary differential equations that determine the amplitudes and phases of the phase-locked periodic solutions. The first-order approximations of the periodic solutions are found to be in excellent agreement with those obtained by direct numerical integration of the delay-differential equation. It is also found that the steady state solutions of the nonlinear non-autonomous system may lose their stability via either a pitchfork or Hopf bifurcation. It is shown that the primary resonance response may exhibit symmetric and asymmetric phase-locked periodic motions, quasi-periodic motions, chaotic motions, and coexistence of two stable motions. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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