Survey on Multi-Output Learning.
- IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- IEEE transactions on neural networks and learning systems, 2020, 31, (7), pp. 2409-2429
- Issue Date:
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The aim of multi-output learning is to simultaneously predict multiple outputs given an input. It is an important learning problem for decision-making since making decisions in the real world often involves multiple complex factors and criteria. In recent times, an increasing number of research studies have focused on ways to predict multiple outputs at once. Such efforts have transpired in different forms according to the particular multi-output learning problem under study. Classic cases of multi-output learning include multi-label learning, multi-dimensional learning, multi-target regression, and others. From our survey of the topic, we were struck by a lack in studies that generalize the different forms of multi-output learning into a common framework. This article fills that gap with a comprehensive review and analysis of the multi-output learning paradigm. In particular, we characterize the four Vs of multi-output learning, i.e., volume, velocity, variety, and veracity, and the ways in which the four Vs both benefit and bring challenges to multi-output learning by taking inspiration from big data. We analyze the life cycle of output labeling, present the main mathematical definitions of multi-output learning, and examine the field's key challenges and corresponding solutions as found in the literature. Several model evaluation metrics and popular data repositories are also discussed. Last but not least, we highlight some emerging challenges with multi-output learning from the perspective of the four Vs as potential research directions worthy of further studies.
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