Recovery of sodium sulfate from seawater brine using fractional submerged membrane distillation crystallizer.

Elsevier BV
Publication Type:
Journal Article
Chemosphere, 2020, 238
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Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) brine contain many valuable resources. In this study, fractional-submerged membrane distillation crystallizer (F-SMDC) was used to recover sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) from SWRO brine. The concentration/temperature gradient (CG/TG) in the reactor enhanced water recovery utilizing MD and Na2SO4 crystallization via a crystallizer. Crystals were not obtained at the bottom section of the F-SMDC due to: firstly, calcium sulfate crystallization occurring on the membrane surface; and secondly, low temperature-sensitivity solubility component such as NaCl exerting a negative influence. In order to obtain supersaturation, a sulfate-rich scenario was created in the reactor through the addition of the following three components: Na2SO4, MgSO4 and (NH4)2SO4. When Na2SO4 and MgSO4 were added, a larger concentration was observed at the top section, resulting in a low concentration gradient (CG) ratio, i.e. around 1.7. Conversely, the addition of (NH4)2SO4 achieved faster Na2SO4 crystallization (VCF 1.42) at the bottom section with a greater CG ratio of more than 2.0. Total water recovery ratio of 72% and 223.73 g Na2SO4 crystals were successfully extracted from simulated SWRO brine using laboratory scale F-SMDC.
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