Triplet Fusion Upconversion with Oxygen Resistance in Aqueous Media.

American Chemical Society (ACS)
Publication Type:
Journal Article
Analytical chemistry, 2021, 93, (10), pp. 4641-4646
Issue Date:
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Triplet fusion upconversion (also called triplet-triplet annihilation, TTA) arouses much attention due to its potential in the fields of biological imaging, optogenetics, and light harvesting. However, oxygen quenching remains a challenge ahead, restricting its applications in aqueous media. Previous efforts to realize aqueous TTA with oxygen resistance have been focused on core-shell structures and self-assembly, but tedious processes and complicated chemical modification are required. Here, we report a direct and efficient strategy to realize aqueous TTA by controlling the ionic equilibrium of the TTA dyad. We find that the ionized organic dyad in physiological buffers and electrolyte-based media shows a natural aerotolerance without any complicated structure engineering. In particular, the upconversion intensity of this aqueous TTA in Tris buffer under an air-saturated condition is more than twice that under the deaerated condition. We further demonstrate the TTA system for potential applications in pH and temperature sensing with reversible and sensitive performance. We anticipate this facile approach will inspire the development of practical aqueous TTA and broad applications in biological science.
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