Atmospheric sound propagation in a moving fluid above an impedance plane: Application of the semi-analytic finite element method.

Publication Type:
Journal Article
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2021, 149, (2), pp. 1285
Issue Date:
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This article uses a normal mode approach to predict atmospheric sound propagation over a locally reacting impedance plane. The semi-analytic finite element method is used to compute the normal modes, which enables the exact governing wave equation for a moving fluid to be solved in two dimensions. A locally reacting surface is added using the general Ingard-Myers boundary condition, and the transmission loss is obtained for cylindrical and spherical spreading for range independent problems. The approach developed in this article will, in principle, converge toward the exact solution and so has the potential to provide benchmark predictions for complex, range independent, outdoor sound propagation problems. Predictions are shown to provide good agreement with benchmark solutions available in the literature, including those with a logarithmic wind velocity profile. Results are also reported for a combination of a logarithmic wind velocity profile and a temperature inversion for ranges of up to 5 km. Finally, transmission loss predictions are reported for a relatively wide frequency range, and it is concluded that finite elements can provide an alternative approach for computing range independent outdoor sound propagation that converges to the exact solution.
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