Loss of Hyaluronan and Proteoglycan Link Protein-1 Induces Tumorigenesis in Colorectal Cancer

Frontiers Media SA
Publication Type:
Journal Article
Frontiers in Oncology, 11
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common diagnosed cancer worldwide, but there are no effective cures for it. Hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein-1 (HAPLN1) is a component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and involved in the tumor environment in the colon. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a key cytokine that regulates the deposition of ECM proteins in CRC. However, the role of HAPLN1 in TGF-β contributions to CRC remains unknown. We found that the mRNA expression of HAPLN1 was decreased in tumors from CRC patients compared with healthy controls and normal tissue adjacent to the tumor using two existing microarray datasets. This was validated at the protein level by tissue array from CRC patients (n = 59). HAPLN1 protein levels were also reduced in human CRC epithelial cells after 24 h of TGF-β stimulation, and its protein expression correlated with type I collagen alpha-1 (COL1A1) in CRC. Transfection of HAPLN1 overexpression plasmids into these cells increased protein levels but reduced COL1A1 protein, tumor growth, and cancer cell migration. TGF-β stimulation increased Smad2/3, p-Smad2/3, Smad4, and E-adhesion proteins; however, HAPLN1 overexpression restored these proteins to baseline levels in CRC epithelial cells after TGF-β stimulation. These findings suggest that HAPLN1 regulates the TGF-β signaling pathway to control collagen deposition via the TGF-β signaling pathway and mediates E-adhesion to control tumor growth. Thus, treatments that increase HAPLN1 levels may be a novel therapeutic option for CRC.
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