Probiotics Evaluation in Oncological Surgery: A Systematic Review of 36 Randomized Controlled Trials Assessing 21 Diverse Formulations.

Multimed Inc.
Publication Type:
Journal Article
Current Oncology, 2021, 28, (6), pp. 5192-5214
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BACKGROUND: Objectives were to evaluate probiotics safety and efficacy in oncological surgery. METHODS: Systematic review methodology guided by Cochrane, PRISMA, SWiM, and CIOMS. Protocol registered on PROSPERO (CRD42018086168). RESULTS: 36 RCTs (on 3305 participants) and 6 nonrandomized/observational studies were included, mainly on digestive system cancers. There was evidence of a beneficial effect on preventing infections, with 70% of RCTs' (21/30) direction of effect favoring probiotics. However, five RCTs (17%) favored controls for infections, including one trial with RR 1.57 (95% CI: 0.79, 3.12). One RCT that changed (balanced) its antibiotics protocol after enrolling some participants had mortality risk RR 3.55 (95% CI: 0.77, 16.47; 7/64 vs. 2/65 deaths). The RCT identified with the most promising results overall administered an oral formulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 + Lactobacillus plantarum + Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 + Saccharomyces boulardii. Methodological quality appraisals revealed an overall substantial risk-of-bias, with only five RCTs judged as low risk-of-bias. CONCLUSIONS: This large evidence synthesis found encouraging results from most formulations, though this was contrasted by potential harms from a few others, thus validating the literature that "probiotics" are not homogeneous microorganisms. Given microbiome developments and infections morbidity, further high-quality research is warranted using those promising probiotics identified herein.
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