A holistic and integrated approach to implementing cognitive pharmaceutical services

Editorial Universidad de Granada
Publication Type:
Journal Article
ARS Pharmaceutica, 2010, 51 (1), pp. 69 - 88
Issue Date:
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Community pharmacy is part of the health care system which is currently under economic pressure and facing changes in demands from consumers and government. In response, the pharmacy profession is becoming more patient orientated and implementing cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS). CPS in various countries has similar objectives with different emphasis, definitions, labels and using different tools. However, they can be classified using a broad hierarchical model based on clinical decision making and the extent of change required (Box 1). The challenges faced by the profession are related the development of a new patient orientated model of pharmacy which affects health care policy, education and research, the evolution of the market, the individual and organisational approaches to change and the implementation of CPS. These issues and previous research conducted in pharmacy practice have been synthesised to provide a platform for change that can guide a holistic and integrated approach to CPS implementation. Implementation can be conceptually framed in six levels: clinical, service provision, community pharmacy, professional organisation, government and stakeholder (Figure 1)
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