Re-establishing the comprehension of phytomedicine and nanomedicine in inflammation-mediated cancer signaling.
- Elsevier BV
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Semin Cancer Biol, 2022
- Issue Date:
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Recent mounting evidence has revealed extensive genetic heterogeneity within tumors that drive phenotypic variation affecting key cancer pathways, making cancer treatment extremely challenging. Diverse cancer types display resistance to treatment and show patterns of relapse following therapy. Therefore, efforts are required to address tumor heterogeneity by developing a broad-spectrum therapeutic approach that combines targeted therapies. Inflammation has been progressively documented as a vital factor in tumor advancement and has consequences in epigenetic variations that support tumor instigation, encouraging all the tumorigenesis phases. Increased DNA damage, disrupted DNA repair mechanisms, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and its incursion are a few pro-cancerous outcomes of chronic inflammation. A clear understanding of the cellular and molecular signaling mechanisms of tumor-endorsing inflammation is necessary for further expansion of anti-cancer therapeutics targeting the crosstalk between tumor development and inflammatory processes. Multiple inflammatory signaling pathways, such as the NF-κB signaling pathway, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, MAPK signaling, PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling, Wnt signaling cascade, and TGF-β/Smad signaling, have been found to regulate inflammation, which can be modulated using various factors such as small molecule inhibitors, phytochemicals, recombinant cytokines, and nanoparticles in conjugation to phytochemicals to treat cancer. Researchers have identified multiple targets to specifically alter inflammation in cancer therapy to restrict malignant progression and improve the efficacy of cancer therapy. siRNA-and shRNA-loaded nanoparticles have been observed to downregulate STAT3 signaling pathways and have been employed in studies to target tumor malignancies. This review highlights the pathways involved in the interaction between tumor advancement and inflammatory progression, along with the novel approaches of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems currently used to target inflammatory signaling pathways to combat cancer.
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