Conversion of bio-jet fuel from palm kernel oil and its blending effect with jet A-1 fuel
- Elsevier BV
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Energy Conversion and Management, 2021, 243, pp. 114311
- Issue Date:
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The development of bio-jet fuel helps to sustain the demand of air transportation, and reduces the dependency on fossil fuel usage. It is noted that different blending ratio of bio-jet fuel to Jet A-1 fuel can effectively affect the final composition and characteristics of the overall fuel. This work aims to study the effect of bio-jet fuel blends that were derived from palm kernel oil via deoxygenation process. The product yield and selectivity of the bio-jet fuel were investigated based on two types of commercial catalysts (e.g., Pd/C and V2O5). Besides, the characteristics of bio-jet fuel produced and its blending ratio to Jet A-1 fuel (e.g., 20 vol%, 40 vol%, 60 vol%, 80 vol%) were further tested. The deoxygenation study indicated that palm kernel oil and Pd/C catalyst at 8 wt% were found to be the most favorable pair of feedstock and catalyst (i.e., ~96% yield of liquid product, 73% jet paraffin selectivity). Besides, the blending study indicated that 20 vol% of palm kernel oil-derived bio-jet fuel blended in Jet A-1 fuel was concluded as the most promising ratio. This is because it exhibited the most favorable low temperature fluidity, by having good amount of isoparaffin to lower the tendency of crystallization process during low temperature. Besides, it also showed good combustion characteristics, due to fair amount of oxygenates and aromatics. Thus, oxidation and soot emission were hindered during fuel combustion.
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