On the competitive antagonism effect in combined chloride-sulfate attack: A numerical exploration

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Cement and Concrete Research, 2021, 144, pp. 1-16
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It is of tremendous difficulty to draw a conclusive verdict on the complex process of mutual interference regarding the combined chloride-sulfate attack on concrete, where many have explored the topic, but contradicting results have been reported. In this paper, by taking advantages of the chemo-physical-mechanical method, based on the robust technique of thermodynamic modelling, the competitive antagonism effect in combined chloride-sulfate attack is investigated. Firstly, a range of reported tests are numerically modelled to demonstrate the effectiveness of the employed method in interpreting those opposing and diverse experimental outcomes. More importantly, a fresh conjecture incorporating a novel assessment criterion for the competitive antagonism effect is proposed and supported through a carefully designed illustrative example. Based on the numerical exploration, unique findings and implications for future engineering practices are revealed.
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