Domain-specific meta-embedding with latent semantic structures

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Journal Article
Information Sciences, 2021, 555, pp. 410-423
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Meta-embedding aims at assembling pre-trained embeddings from various sources and producing more expressively powerful word representations. Many natural language processing (NLP) tasks in a specific domain benefit from meta-embedding, especially when the task suffers from low resources. This paper proposes an unsupervised meta-embedding method that jointly models background knowledge from the source embeddings and domain-specific knowledge from the task domain. Specifically, embeddings from multiple sources for a word are dynamically aggregated to a single meta-embedding by a differentiable attention module. The embeddings derived from pre-training on a large-scale corpus provide complete background knowledge of word usage. Then, the meta-embedding is further enriched by exploring domain-specific knowledge from each task domain in two ways. First, contextual information in the raw corpus is considered to capture the semantics of words. Second, a graph representing domain-specific semantic structures is extracted from the raw corpus to highlight the relationships between salient words, then the graph is modeled by a powerful graph convolution network to effectively capture rich semantic structures among words in the task domain. Experiments conducted on two tasks, i.e., text classification and relation extraction, show that our model outputs more accurate word meta-embeddings for the task domain, compared to other state-of-the-art competitors. .
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