Functionalized Materials as a Versatile Platform for Enzyme Immobilization in Wastewater Treatment
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Current Pollution Reports, 2021, 7, (3), pp. 3263-276
- Issue Date:
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Purpose of Review Untreated wastewater discharge can significantly and negatively impact the state of the environment. Rapid industrialization and economic development have directly contributed to land and water pollution resulting from the application of many chemicals such as organic dyes, pharmaceuticals, and industrial reagents. The removal of these chemicals before effluent discharge is crucial for environmental protection. This review aims to explore the importance of functionalized materials in the preparation of biocatalytic systems and consider their application in eliminating water pollutants. Recent Findings Wastewater treatment methods can be classified into three groups: (i) chemical (e.g., chemical oxidation and ozonation), (ii) physical (e.g., membrane separation and ion exchange), and (iii) biological processes. Biological treatment is the most widely used method due to its cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness. In particular, the use of immobilized enzymes has recently become more attractive as a result of scientific progress in advanced material synthesis. The selection of an appropriate support plays an important role in the preparation of such biologically active systems. Recent studies have demonstrated the use of various materials for enzyme immobilization in the purification of water. Summary This review identifies and discusses different biocatalytic systems used in the enzymatic degradation of various water pollutants. Materials functionalized by specific groups can serve as good support matrices for enzyme immobilization, providing chemical and thermal stability to support catalytic reactions. Enzymatic biocatalysis converts the pollutants into simpler products, which are usually less toxic than their parents. Due to immobilization, the enzyme can be used over multiple cycles to reduce the cost of wastewater treatment. Future studies in this field should focus on developing new platforms for enzyme immobilization in order to improve degradation efficiency.
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