Green approaches in synthesising nanomaterials for environmental nanobioremediation: Technological advancements, applications, benefits and challenges.

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Environ Res, 2021, 204, (Pt A), pp. 111967-111967
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Green synthesis approaches of nanomaterials (NMs) have received considerable attention in recent years as it addresses the sustainability issues posed by conventional synthesis methods. However, recent works of literature do not present the complete picture of biogenic NMs. This paper addresses the previous gaps by providing insights into the stability and toxicity of NMs, critically reviewing the various biological agents and solvents required for synthesis, sheds light on the factors that affect biosynthesis, and outlines the applications of NMs across various sectors. Despite the advantages of green synthesis, current methods face challenges with safe and appropriate solvent selection, process parameters that affect the synthesis process, nanomaterial cytotoxicity, bulk production and NM morphology control, tedious maintenance, and knowledge deficiencies. Consequently, the green synthesis of NMs is largely trapped in the laboratory phase. Nevertheless, the environmental friendliness, biocompatibility, and sensitivities of the resulting NMs have wider applications in biomedical science, environmental remediation, and consumer industries. To the scale-up application of biogenic NMs, future research should be focused on understanding the mechanisms of the synthesis processes, identifying more biological and chemical agents that can be used in synthesis, and developing the practicality of green synthesis at the industrial scale, and optimizing the factors affecting the synthesis process.
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