Treatment strategies for HIV infection with emphasis on role of CRISPR/Cas9 gene: Success so far and road ahead.

Elsevier BV
Publication Type:
Journal Article
Eur J Pharmacol, 2022, pp. 175173
Issue Date:
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Advances in biotechnology have led to improving human health with number of novel approaches to mitigate life-threatening diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. In the case of HIV, the damage caused by the retrovirus to the immune system leads to opportunistic infection as well as an elevated risk of autoimmune disease and cancer. Furthermore, clinical symptoms associated with the virus itself may arise. Antiretroviral drug therapy using reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, fusion inhibitor, chemokine receptor 5 antagonist and integrase strand transfer inhibitors have shown promising results in treating HIV infection and available in market in the form of various dosage forms. However, they are unable to completely cure the disease because of complexity in pathogenesis of HIV. In addition, these drugs have some limitations of poor solubility, permeability or, poor receptor binding capacity. To overcome these drawbacks, many novel drug delivery systems for the drugs belonging to above mentioned categories have been developed. The possibility of treating HIV infection using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing has been found in 2015. This provided a new area of research to the scientists who are working towards alternative treatment strategies for HIV infections. The present article describes about various treatment strategies used to treat HIV infections with special emphasis on the role of CRISPR/Cas9 gene-based technology. The potential benefits of specific epigenetic modification in the c-c chemokine receptor 5 gene (CCR5) via various delivery methods are also highlighted.
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