Comparative Analysis on Property Improvement Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) (<sup>1</sup>H and <sup>13</sup>C) Spectra of Various Biodiesel Blended Fuels

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Journal Article
Energy and Fuels, 2016, 30, (6), pp. 4790-4805
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The ever-increasing demand for energy has accelerated the research and development of renewable energy sources, which can eventually decrease the dependence on fossil fuel reserve. Biodiesel, a renewable energy source, has received considerable attention as an alternative fuel for the last few decades. In this study, biodiesels produced from two feedstocks were analyzed with a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy (1H and 13C), in order to improve their physicochemical properties and determine the relationships among them. Here, the physicochemical properties of biodiesels produced from C. nucifera, and P. pinnata oils and their 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30% (by volume) blends were compared with pure diesel (B0), according to ASTM D6751 standards. All of the biodiesels and their blends satisfied the conditions to be an alternative fuel, compared to diesel but pure C. nucifera biodiesel, and their blends yielded more property improvement through their physicochemical property analysis and had the lowest carbon residue content. FAME composition, FT-IR and NMR spectra analysis were used to show the better properties of C. nucifera biodiesel and its blends through high ester content, transmittance, and conversion rate, respectively, than P. pinnata biodiesel and thus can be considered for commercial use in diesel engines.
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