Insights into the Promising Prospect of G Protein and GPCR-Mediated Signaling in Neuropathophysiology and Its Therapeutic Regulation
- Hindawi Limited
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2022, 2022, pp. 1-22
- Issue Date:
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are intricately involved in the conversion of extracellular feedback to intracellular responses. These specialized receptors possess a crucial role in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Most nonsensory GPCRs are active in almost 90% of complex brain functions. At the time of receptor phosphorylation, a GPCR pathway is essentially activated through a G protein signaling mechanism via a G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK). Dopamine, an important neurotransmitter, is primarily involved in the pathophysiology of several CNS disorders; for instance, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, and ADHD. Since dopamine, acetylcholine, and glutamate are potent neuropharmacological targets, dopamine itself has potential therapeutic effects in several CNS disorders. GPCRs essentially regulate brain functions by modulating downstream signaling pathways. GPR6, GPR52, and GPR8 are termed orphan GPCRs because they colocalize with dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in neurons of the basal ganglia, either alone or with both receptors. Among the orphan GPCRs, the GPR52 is recognized for being an effective psychiatric receptor. Various antipsychotics like aripiprazole and quetiapine mainly target GPCRs to exert their actions. One of the most important parts of signal transduction is the regulation of G protein signaling (RGS). These substances inhibit the activation of the G protein that initiates GPCR signaling. Developing a combination of RGS inhibitors with GPCR agonists may prove to have promising therapeutic potential. Indeed, several recent studies have suggested that GPCRs represent potentially valuable therapeutic targets for various psychiatric disorders. Molecular biology and genetically modified animal model studies recommend that these enriched GPCRs may also act as potential therapeutic psychoreceptors. Neurotransmitter and neuropeptide GPCR malfunction in the frontal cortex and limbic-related regions, including the hippocampus, hypothalamus, and brainstem, is likely responsible for the complex clinical picture that includes cognitive, perceptual, emotional, and motor symptoms. G protein and GPCR-mediated signaling play a critical role in developing new treatment options for mental health issues, and this study is aimed at offering a thorough picture of that involvement. For patients who are resistant to current therapies, the development of new drugs that target GPCR signaling cascades remains an interesting possibility. These discoveries might serve as a fresh foundation for the creation of creative methods for pharmacologically useful modulation of GPCR function.