Assessing Individual- and Community-Level Variability in Predictors of Neonatal, Infant, and Under-Five Child Mortality in Ethiopia Using a Multilevel Modeling Approach.

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Children (Basel), 2022, 9, (7), pp. 1-14
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Background: In low-and middle-income countries, child mortality rates are basic indicators of a country's socio-economic situation and quality of life. The Ethiopian government is currently working to reduce child mortality to accomplish its long-term development goals. Using data from the Ethiopian Mini Demographic and Health Survey, 2019, this study analyzed the determinants of child mortality in Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 4806 children were considered in the final analyses. Multivariate analysis was used to estimate the effects of the predictors simultaneously on each child mortality outcome. Results: The findings revealed that 31.6% of children died during the neonatal stage, 39.1% during the infant stage, and 48.5% during the under-five stage. Variation in child mortality was discovered between Ethiopian community clusters, with the result of heterogeneity between clusters on newborn mortality (χ2 = 202.4, p-value < 0.0001), (χ2 = 777.35, p-value < 0.0001), and (χ2 = 112.92, p-value < 0.0001). Children's neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality intracluster correlation coefficient (ICC) were 0.35, 0.33, and 0.36, respectively, across communities. Conclusions: In Ethiopia, under-five mortality remains a serious public health issue, with wide variations and high rates among community clusters. Intervention measures focusing on lowering rates of household poverty, increasing education opportunities, and improving access to health care could assist in reducing child mortality in Ethiopia.
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