Autogenous shrinkage of fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag concrete

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Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are widely used to reduce the cement content to achieve economic and environmental objectives. As a result, understanding the shrinkage of blended cement-based concrete is essential. In total, 21 concrete mixes were produced with type general purpose cement and with cement replacements of 30% by fly ash, 40% and 60% by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). The concrete compressive strength ranged from 25 MPa to 100 MPa. Experimental results were also compared with the predictions by models. Additional tests on pastes with the same SCM content were conducted to investigate both autogenous and chemical shrinkage in relation to their time-dependent pore structure refinement. For concretes with strength below 50 MPa, no significant difference in autogenous shrinkage could be observed between the different blends up to 28 days. However, the autogenous shrinkage of GGBFS concrete increased significantly after 28 days, being about 50% higher than all other concretes at 100 days. This late increase in autogenous shrinkage between 28 and 100 days can be attributed to pore refinement processes. No clear difference was observed for GGBFS concretes with strength greater than 50 MPa. Autogenous shrinkage of fly ash concretes was overall equivalent to that of reference concretes.
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