Lanthanide ions in nanocrystals for biophotonics application

SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics
Publication Type:
Conference Proceeding
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2022, 12277, pp. 122770f-122770f-6
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Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) is a series of lanthanoid ions doped nanocrystals that are of great interest for biomedical applications, including nanoscale optical sensing and imaging, benefiting from its bright, stable, multicolour emission. Each of the nanoparticles contains thousands of Lanthanide ions, which works as both sensitizers and activators to absorb the near-infrared photons and transfer the energy from sensitizers to activators through nonlinear energy transferring process for an upconverting emission. A few new super-resolution imaging methods have been developed recently based on UCNPs’ unique nonlinear energy transferring process. Most recently, upon these advances, we have found that the thousands of Lanthanide ions provide a strong dielectric resonance effect in a single UCNP. In this work, we will review using the nonlinear response of lanthanoid ions to improve super-resolution nanoscopy. We will also report the ion resonance effect in UCNPs could substantially increase the permittivity and polarizability of nanocrystals, leading to an enhanced optical force on a single 23.3 nm radius UCNP, more than 30 times stronger than the reported value for gold nanoparticles with the same size. The enhanced optical force also provides a way to bypass the optical trapping requirement of “refractive index mismatch”. We further report that the resonance effect could engineer the Rayleigh scattering of UCNPs. These applications suggest a new potential of UCNPs as force probe, scattering probe and fluorescence probe simultaneously for multiplexed imaging.
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