Comparative review on microbial electrochemical technologies for resource recovery from wastewater towards circular economy and carbon neutrality.

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Bioresour Technol, 2023, 376, pp. 128906
Issue Date:
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Newly arising concepts such as the circular economy and carbon neutrality motivate resource recovery from wastewater. This paper reviews and discusses state-of-the-art microbial electrochemical technologies (METs), specifically microbial fuel cells (MFCs), microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) and microbial recycling cells (MRCs), which enable energy generation and nutrient recovery from wastewater. Mechanisms, key factors, applications, and limitations are compared and discussed. METs are effective in energy conversion, demonstrating advantages, drawbacks and future potential as specific scenarios. MECs and MRCs exhibited greater potential for simultaneous nutrient recovery, and MRCs offer the best scaling-up potential and efficient mineral recovery. Research on METs should be more concerned with lifespan of materials, secondary pollutants reduction and scaled-up benchmark systems. More up-scaled application cases are expected for cost structures comparison and life cycle assessment of METs. This review could direct the follow-up research, development and successful implementation of METs for resource recovery from wastewater.
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