IP10 is a predictor of successful vaccine protection against paratuberculosis infection in sheep.

Publication Type:
Journal Article
Vaccine, 2023, 41, (1), pp. 274-283
Issue Date:
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The cell mediated immune response and ability of immune cells to migrate to the site of infection are both key aspects of protection against many pathogens. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic wasting disease of ruminants. Current commercial vaccines for paratuberculosis reduce the occurrence of clinical disease but not all animals are protected from infection. Therefore, there is a need to understand the immune responses triggered by these vaccines at the site of infection, in circulating immune cells and their relationships to vaccine-mediated protection. The magnitude and location of gene expression related to the cell mediated immune response and cellular migration were studied in the ileum of sheep. In addition, longitudinal IP10 (also known as IP10) secretion by circulating immune cells was examined in the same sheep. Animals were grouped based on vaccination status (vaccinated vs non-vaccinated) and MAP exposure (experimentally exposed vs unexposed). Vaccination of unexposed sheep increased the expression of IP10, CCL5 and COR1c. Sheep that were successfully protected by vaccination (uninfected following experimental exposure) had significantly reduced expression of IP10 in the ileum at 12 months post exposure compared to vaccine non-responders (those that became infected) and non-vaccinated infected sheep. Successfully protected sheep also had significantly increased secretion of IP10 in in vitro stimulated immune cells from whole blood compared to vaccine non responders at 4 months post exposure. Therefore, the IP10 recall response has the potential to be used as marker for infection status in vaccinated sheep and could be a biomarker for a DIVA test in sheep.
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