Nonverbal robot-group interaction using an imitated gaze cue

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Conference Proceeding
HRI 2011 - Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, 2011, pp. 497 - 504
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Ensuring that a particular and unsuspecting member of a group is the recipient of a salient-item hand-over is a complicated interaction. The robot must effectively, expediently and reliably communicate its intentions to advert any tendency within the group towards antinormative behaviour. In this paper, we study how a robot can establish the participant roles of such an interaction using imitated social and contextual cues. We designed two gaze cues, the first was designed to discourage antinormative behaviour through individualising a particular member of the group and the other to the contrary. We designed and conducted a field experiment (456 participants in 64 trials) in which small groups of people (between 3 and 20 people) assembled in front of the robot, which then attempted to pass a salient object to a particular group member by presenting a physical cue, followed by one of two variations of a gaze cue. Our results showed that presenting the individualising cue had a significant (z=3.733, p=0.0002 effect on the robot's ability to ensure that an arbitrary group member did not take the salient object and that the selected participant, did. Copyright 2011 ACM.
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