Chlorhexidine salt-loaded polyurethane orthodontic chains: In vitro release and antibacterial activity studies

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Journal Article
AAPS PharmSciTech, 2012, 13 (4), pp. 1446 - 1450
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The widespread use of indwelling medical devices has enormously increased the interest in materials incorporating antibiotics and antimicrobial agents as a means to prevent dangerous device-related infections. Recently, chlorhexidine-loaded polyurethane has been proposed as a material suitable for the production of devices which are able to resist microbial contamination. The aim of the present study was to characterize the in vitro release of chlorhexidine from new polymeric orthodontic chains realized with polyurethane loaded with two different chlorhexidine salts: chlorhexidine diacetate or chlorhexidine digluconate. The orthodontic chains constituted of three layers: a middle polyurethane layer loaded with chlorhexidine salt inserted between two layers of unloaded polymer. In vitro release of chlorhexidine diacetate and digluconate from orthodontic chains loaded with 10% or 20% (w/w) chlorhexidine salt was sustained for 42 days and followed Fickian diffusion. The drug diffusion through the polyurethane was found to be dependent not only on chlorhexidine loading, but also on the type of chlorhexidine salt. The antibacterial activity of 0.2% (w/w) chlorhexidine diacetate-loaded orthodontic chain was successfully tested towards clinically isolated biofilm forming ica-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis via agar diffusion test. In conclusion, the chlorhexidine salt-loaded chains could provide an innovative approach in the prevention of oral infections related to the use of orthodontic devices. © 2012 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.
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