Framing doctoral pedagogy as design and action

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Reshaping Doctoral Education: International Approaches and Pedagogies, 2012, 1, pp. 3 - 11
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In the last forty years or so, the doctorate has moved from a small, elite endeavour, designed primarily to replenish an academic-disciplinary workf()l'cc, to a strong and growing international enterprise and market. 'I'here is a growing momentum of international debate abollt the future and shape of the doctorate, which is rapidly expanding and diversifying. In Australia, as in many European countries and in the UK, numbers almost doubled in a ten-year period. In the USA, there arc morc than 40,000 doctoral graduates each year. China, India, South East Asia and countries in South America and Africa arc developing doctoral education programs at a rapid pace as part of plans for economic growth (Cyranoski et al., 2011). This expansion is associated with the doctorate's strong connection to policy rationalities associated with a globalised 'knowledge economy', where doctoral education is understood as producing knowledge workers to replenish national or regional innovation systems and develop human capital in knowledge industries (Calleja Perez et al., 2011).
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