Comparative study of floc characteristics with titanium tetrachloride against conventional coagulants: Effect of coagulant dose, solution pH, shear force and break-up period

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Journal Article
Chemical Engineering Journal, 2013, 233 pp. 70 - 79
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Characteristics of flocs formed by titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), ferric chloride (FeCl3) and aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) were comparatively investigated in terms of floc growth rate, size, strength, recoverability and fractal dimension in real water treatment. Impacts of coagulant dose, solution pH and hydraulic conditions, including shear force and break-up period, on floc properties were investigated. Results showed that the floc size followed the order of TiCl4FeCl3Al2(SO4)3within the dose range investigated. The response of floc strength to coagulant dose depended on the coagulant used, while the floc recoverability decreased with the increasing dose regardless of the coagulant used. Within the solution pH range investigated, the floc strength and recoverability showed the following order of Al2(SO4)3FeCl3TiCl4and those of TiCl4were the least affected by solution pH. Additionally, the floc strength decayed with the increasing shear force and break-up period for the three coagulants. TiCl4yielded the flocs with the weakest recoverability within both the shear force and break-up period ranges investigated. Moreover, the floc compactness followed the order of FeCl3TiCl4Al2(SO4)3under either shear force condition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
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