Crossing the Bridge over Norman's Gulf of Execution: Revealing Feedforward's True Identity

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Conference Proceeding
Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2013 (CHI'13), 2013, pp. 1931 - 1940
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Feedback and affordances are two of the most well-known principles in interaction design. Unfortunately, the related and equally important notion of feedforward has not been given as much consideration. Nevertheless, feedforward is a powerful design principle for bridging Normans Gulf of Execution. We reframe feedforward by disambiguating it from related design principles such as feedback and perceived affordances, and identify new classes of feedforward. In addition, we present a reference framework that provides a means for designers to explore and recognize different opportunities for feedforward.
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