Mitigation of scaling in heat exchangers by physical water treatment using zinc and tourmaline

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Journal Article
Applied Thermal Engineering, 2011, 31 (11-12), pp. 2025 - 2031
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This paper presents a study on the mitigation of calcium carbonate scaling in a double-pipe heat exchanger by physical water treatment (PWT) using zinc and tourmaline as catalytic materials. Artificially-hardened water at 300 mgL -1 was utilized as the fluid medium to form fouling deposits. The cooling water (i.e., hard water) velocity was varied from 0.3 to 0.8 ms -1. The inlet temperatures were maintained at 86 ± 1° C and 22 ± 1° C for hot- and cold-water sides, respectively. The results show that in PWT-treatment case, the fouling resistances are 13-50% lower than those in no-treatment case. The SEM image of the deposit shows a blunt shape crystal structure in case of PWT-treatment, while a pointed crystal structure in case of no-treatment. The calcium content of deposits formed in the cases of PWT-treatment is lower by 17-22% than those of the no-treatment, which corresponds to a thinner fouling in case of PWT-treatment. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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