Adaptive Antenna Arrays for Ad-Hoc Millimetre-Wave Wireless Communications

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Advanced Trends in Wireless Communications, 2011, pp. 93 - 116
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New technologies that employ millimetre-wave frequency bands to achieve high speed wireless links are gaining more attention (Dyadyuk et. al., 2007, 2009b, 2010a; Hirata et. al., 2006; Lockie & Peck, 2009; Kasugi et. al., 2009; Wells, 2009) due to increasing demand for wideband wireless communications. Very wide uncongested spectrum is available in the E—bands (71-76 GHz and 81-86 GHz) recently allocated for wireless communications in USA, Europe, Korea, Russia and Australia. The E-band provides an opportunity for line-of – sight (LOS) links with higher data rates, well suited for fibre replacement and backhaul applications. Future mobile and ad-hoc communications networks will require higher bandwidth and longer range. An ad-hoc or mobile (e.g. inter-aircraft) network that relies on high gain antennas also requires beam scanning. Adaptive antenna arrays have found a wide rage of applications and are becoming essential parts of wireless communications systems (Abbaspour-Tamijani & Sarabandi, 2003; Do-Hong & Russer, 2004; Gross, 2005; Guo, 2004; Krim & Viberg, 1996; Mailloux, 2005, 2007; Rogstad et al., 2003; Singh et al., 2008). While the spectrum available in the millimetre-wave frequency bands enables multi-gigabit-per second data rates, the practically achievable communication range is limited by several factors. These include the higher atmospheric attenuation at these frequencies and limited output power of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) (Doan et al., 2004; Dyadyuk et al., 2008a; Kasper et al., 2009; Floyd et al., 2007; Reynolds et. al., 2006; Vamsi et. al., 2005, Zirath et al., 2004) due to physical constraints. Therefore, the performance of the ad-hoc or mobile millimetre-wave networks requires enhancement by using spatial power combining antenna arrays.
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