Miniemulsion polymerization based on in situ surfactant formation without high-energy homogenization: Effects of organic acid and counter ion
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- Journal Article
- Polymer Journal, 2012, 44 (5), pp. 375 - 381
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Miniemulsion polymerization of styrene based on the in situ surfactant-generation technique has been investigated for a range of carboxylic acids and counterions. This technique relies on in situ formation of the surfactant at the oil-water interface and circumvents the use of traditional high-energy mixing (for example, ultrasonication) for generation of the initial miniemulsion. Miniemulsion polymerizations have been conducted successfully using the carboxylic acids lauric acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid, respectively. Coagulation/phase separation was not observed and the number-average particle diameters were < 100 nm. The counterions K +, Na + and Li + were investigated in combination with five different carboxylic acids (all permutations), revealing that satisfactory miniemulsion formation/stability could only be obtained with K +. Results of miniemulsion polymerizations conducted in the presence of an aqueous-phase radical scavenger were consistent with predominant monomer droplet nucleation. Use of the corresponding preformed surfactants added to the aqueous phase, without high-energy mixing, did not result in sufficiently stable initial (before polymerization) miniemulsions. © 2012 The Society of Polymer Science, Japan (SPSJ) All rights reserved.
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