Curcumin and its Derivatives: Their Application in Neuropharmacology and Neuroscience in the 21st Century

Publisher:
Bentham Science Publishers
Publication Type:
Journal Article
Citation:
Current Neuropharmacology, 2013, 11 (4), pp. 338 - 378
Issue Date:
2013-01
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Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenol extracted from the plant Curcuma longa, is widely used in Southeast Asia, China and India in food preparation and for medicinal purposes. Since the second half of the last century, this traditional medicine has attracted the attention of scientists from multiple disciplines to elucidate its pharmacological properties. Of significant interest is curcumins role to treat neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimers disease (AD), and Parkinsons disease (PD) and malignancy. These diseases all share an inflammatory basis, involving increased cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and oxidative damage to lipids, nucleic acids and proteins. The therapeutic benefits of curcumin for these neurodegenerative diseases appear multifactorial via regulation of transcription factors, cytokines and enzymes associated with (Nuclear factor kappa beta) NF?B activity. This review describes the historical use of curcumin in medicine, its chemistry, stability and biological activities, including curcumin`s anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. The review further discusses the pharmacology of curcumin and provides new perspectives on its therapeutic potential and limitations. Especially, the review focuses in detail on the effectiveness of curcumin and its mechanism of actions in treating neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases and brain malignancies
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