Analogy, paralogy and reverse analogy: Postulates and inferences

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Conference Proceeding
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 2009, 5803 LNAI pp. 306 - 314
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Analogy plays a very important role in human reasoning. In this paper, we study a restricted form of it based on analogical proportions, i.e. statements of the form a is to b as c is to d. We first investigate the constitutive notions of analogy, and beside the analogical proportion highlights the existence of two noticeable companion relations: one that is just reversing the change from c to d w. r. t. the one from a to b, while the last one called paralogical proportion expresses that what a and b have in common, c and d have it also. Characteristic postulates are identified for the three types of relations allowing to provide set and Boolean logic interpretations in a natural way. Finally, the solving of proportion equations as a basis for inference is discussed, again emphasizing the differences between analogy, reverse analogy, and paralogy, in particular in a three-valued setting, which is also briefly presented. © 2009 Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
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