Experimental evaluation of microfiltration-granular activated carbon (MF-GAC)/nano filter hybrid system in high quality water reuse
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- Journal Article
- Journal of Membrane Science, 2015, 476 pp. 1 - 9
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© 2014 Elsevier B.V. In order to achieve high quality water reuse, a dual membrane hybrid system (combining microfiltration-granular activated carbon (MF-GAC)) adsorption hybrid system followed by nanofiltration (NF)) was used. This system[U+05F3]s performance was evaluated in terms of organic matter, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and removal of inorganic matter. Biologically treated sewage effluent (BTSE) collected from a water reclamation plant in Sydney, Australia was used as the water source. The removal efficiency of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of MF-GAC strongly depends on the dose of GAC and filtration flux. MF-GAC system effectively removed hydrophobic organics (45-80%) as well as hydrophilic organics (50-80%). The removal of various PPCPs ranged from 33% to 92%, and as expected, the amount of inorganic matter removed by the MF-GAC system was very small. Hence, the NF system, as a second membrane system, was employed to polish the effluent from the MF-GAC hybrid system. The NF system rejected most of DOC (>95%), sulfates (99%) and a substantial amount of calcium (70%), and magnesium (60%) from MF-GAC effluent. Further, more than 90% of PPCPs were removed by the NF system. Overall the dual membrane hybrid system proved to be very effective in removing organics, PPCPs and inorganic matter. The MF-GAC followed by NF results in high quality water reuse and this system can serve as an effective treatment option for water reuse schemes.
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