Five two-qubit gates are necessary for implementing the Toffoli gate

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Journal Article
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 2013, 88 (1)
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In this Rapid Communication, we consider the open problem of the minimum cost of two-qubit gates for simulating the Toffoli gate and show that five two-qubit gates are necessary. Before our work, it was known that five two-qubit gates are sufficient to implement the Toffoli gate, and numerical evidence indicates that five two-qubit gates are also necessary. The idea introduced here can also be used to solve the problem of optimal simulation of Deutsch three-qubit gates. © 2013 American Physical Society.
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