Preparation of titanium dioxide (TiO<inf>2</inf>) from sludge produced by titanium tetrachloride (TiCl<inf>4</inf>) flocculation of wastewater
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Environmental Science and Technology, 2007, 41 (4), pp. 1372 - 1377
- Issue Date:
Sludge disposal is one of the most costly and environmentally problematic challenges of modern wastewater treatment worldwide. In this study, a new process was developed, which has a significant potential for lower cost of waste disposal, protection of the environment and public health, and yield of economically useful byproducts. Titanium oxide (TiO2), which is the most widely used metal oxide, was produced from the wastewater sludge generated by the flocculation of secondary wastewater with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4). Detailed analyses were conducted to compare TiCl 4, ferric chloride (FeCl3), and aluminum sulfate (Al 2(SO4)3) flocculation. Removal of organic matter and different molecular sizes by Ti-salt flocculation was similar to that of the most widely used Fe- and Al-salt flocculation. The mean size of Ti-, Fe-, and Al-salt flocs was 47.5, 42.5, and 16.9 μm, respectively. The decantability of the settled flocs by TiCl4 coagulant was similar to that by FeCl3 coagulant and much higher than that of Al 2(SO4)3. The photocatalyst from wastewater (PFW) produced by TiCl4 flocculation was characterized by X-ray diffraction, BET surface area, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray, transmission electron microscopy, photocatalytic activity, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The resulting PFW was found to be superior to commercial TiO2 (P-25) in terms of photocatalytic activity and surface area. The PFW was also found to be mainly doped with C and P atoms. The atomic percentage of the PFW was TiO1.42C0.44P 0.14. © 2007 American Chemical Society.
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