Draw solutes in forward osmosis processes

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Forward Osmosis: Fundamentals and Applications, 2015, pp. 85 - 114
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© 2015 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. All Rights Reserved. This chapter provides insight into the selection of suitable draw solutions (DS) and reviews different DS characteristics affecting the performance of forward osmosis (FO) processes. Although some commercial applications of FO technology exist, the development of an effective large-scale process is currently limited due to the lack of both suitable DS and membrane. The success of most FO applications also relies on how the DS can be recovered from the produced water. Therefore, in commercial FO processes, such as FO followed by reverse osmosis seawater desalination, emergency drinks and osmotic dilution are used without a DS recovery system-a simple and energy-saving solution. Research is still needed to develop more suitable DS to achieve full-scale commercialization of the FO process.
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