Strategies and techniques to enhance constructed wetland performance for sustainable wastewater treatment
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2015, 22 (19), pp. 14637 - 14650
- Issue Date:
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© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as an alternative to conventional technologies for wastewater treatment for more than five decades. Recently, the use of various modified CWs to improve treatment performance has also been reported in the literature. However, the available knowledge on various CW technologies considering the intensified and reliable removal of pollutants is still limited. Hence, this paper aims to provide an overview of the current development of CW strategies and techniques for enhanced wastewater treatment. Basic information on configurations and characteristics of different innovations was summarized. Then, overall treatment performance of those systems and their shortcomings were further discussed. Lastly, future perspectives were also identified for specialists to design more effective and sustainable CWs. This information is used to inspire some novel intensifying methodologies, and benefit the successful applications of potential CW technologies.
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