Fertiliser drawn forward osmosis desalination for fertigation

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Forward Osmosis: Fundamentals and Applications, 2015, pp. 395 - 426
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Chapter 17 - Fertiliser Drawn Forward Osmosis Desalination for Fertigation.pdfPublished version2.59 MB
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© 2015 by the American Society of Civil Engineers. All Rights Reserved. This chapter explains the concept of the fertilizer-drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) desalination process and evaluates the potential of fertilizer solutions as draw solutions (DS). Different types of fertilizers are used to grow crops, and hence understanding what types of fertilizers are more suitable for the FDFO desalination process and how to screen and assess suitable fertilizer candidates for use as DS in the FDFO desalination process is important. FDFO desalination adds value to irrigation water and provides more opportunities for improving the efficiencies of water and fertilizer use. The major limitations of the FDFO desalination process are the challenge of meeting the irrigation water quality standards in terms of nutrient concentrations, which limits the direct use of FDFO product water for fertigation. Several options are discussed that could be integrated with the FDFO desalination process to reduce the final nutrient concentration closer to an acceptable limit.
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