Friction factors for spatially varied flow with increasing discharge

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Journal Article
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 2005, 131 (9), pp. 792 - 799
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This paper describes an experimental investigation of how friction factors change for spatially varied flow in sloping channels receiving lateral inflow. The results are compared with those of Beij in 1934, and it is concluded that uniform flow resistance coefficients are not always appropriate for spatially varied flow. Moreover, the common technique of assuming a constant friction factor over the entire length of the channel has been found to have little theoretical justification. The method of Keulegan in 1952 for calculating friction factors in spatially varied flow gives a better estimate, but does not explicitly take account of the lateral inflow rate or velocity. Beij's 1934 experimental data, which was used by Keulegan does not show a systematic variation of friction factor with lateral inflow rate for a constant Reynolds number although this may be due to the low flowrates used. The results of the present study indicate that the friction factor increases with lateral inflow rate for a constant Reynolds number in the experiments that included subcritical and supercritical flow conditions. A method for calculating friction factors which allows for lateral inflow is presented as a precursor to the development of a general method of evaluating friction factors for spatially varied flow with increasing discharge. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering © ASCE.
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