Progress in the biological and chemical treatment technologies for emerging contaminant removal from wastewater: A critical review
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2017, 323 pp. 274 - 298
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© 2016 Elsevier B.V. This review focuses on the removal of emerging contaminants (ECs) by biological, chemical and hybrid technologies in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Results showed that endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) were better removed by membrane bioreactor (MBR), activated sludge and aeration processes among different biological processes. Surfactants, EDCs and personal care products (PCPs) can be well removed by activated sludge process. Pesticides and pharmaceuticals showed good removal efficiencies by biological activated carbon. Microalgae treatment processes can remove almost all types of ECs to some extent. Other biological processes were found less effective in ECs removal from wastewater. Chemical oxidation processes such as ozonation/H2O2, UV photolysis/H2O2 and photo-Fenton processes can successfully remove up to 100% of pesticides, beta blockers and pharmaceuticals, while EDCs can be better removed by ozonation and UV photocatalysis. Fenton process was found less effective in the removal of any types of ECs. A hybrid system based on ozonation followed by biological activated carbon was found highly efficient in the removal of pesticides, beta blockers and pharmaceuticals. A hybrid ozonation-ultrasound system can remove up to 100% of many pharmaceuticals. Future research directions to enhance the removal of ECs have been elaborated.
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