Intra-operative Simultaneous Catheter and Environment Modelling for Endovascular Navigation Based on Intravascular Ultrasound, Electromagnetic Tracking and Pre-operative Data

Imperial College London and the Royal Geographical Society
Publication Type:
Conference Proceeding
Proceedings of The Hamlyn Symposium on Medical Robotics, 2016, pp. 76 - 77
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) form the single most common cause of death. Catheter procedures are among the most common surgical interventions used to treat CVD. Due to their minimal access trauma, these procedures extend the range of patients able to receive interventional CVD treatment to age groups dominated by co-morbidity and unacceptable risks for open surgery [1]. The downside associated with minimising access incisions lies at the increased complexity and difficult manipulation of the instruments and anatomical targets, which is mainly caused by the loss of direct access to the anatomy and the poor visualisation of the surgical site. The current clinical approaches to endovascular procedures mainly rely on 2D guidance based on X-ray fluoroscopy, which uses ionising radiation and dangerous contrast agents [2]. In this paper, a Simultaneous Catheter and Environment Modelling (SCEM) method is presented for endovascular navigation based on intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging, electromagnetic (EM) sensing as well as the vessel structure information provided from the pre-operative CT/MR imaging (see Fig. 1). Thus, radiation dose and contrast agents are avoided. The proposed SCEM intra-operatively recovers the 3D structure of the vasculature together with the pose of the catheter tip, which the knowledge of the interaction between the catheter and its surroundings can be provided. The corresponding uncertainties of both vessel reconstruction and catheter pose can also be computed which is necessary for autonomous robotic catheter navigation. Experimental results using three different phantoms, with different catheter motions and cardiac motions simulated by using a periodic pump demonstrated the accuracy of the vessel reconstruction and the potential clinical value of the proposed SCEM method.
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