Titanium tetrachloride for silver nanoparticle-humic acid composite contaminant removal in coagulation-ultrafiltration hybrid process: floc property and membrane fouling

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Journal Article
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2017, 24 (2), pp. 1757 - 1768
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© 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Titanium-based coagulation is expected to achieve both efficient water purification and sludge recycling. This study is the first attempt to use titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) for silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-humic acid composite contaminant removal in a coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) process, where characterization of flocs and membrane fouling under varied coagulant dose, initial solution pH, and AgNP concentration conditions are the main contents. Results suggested that the TiCl 4 achieved high AgNP removal in the form of silver nanoparticle through adsorption and sweep flocculation and simultaneously exerted additional 68.2 % higher dissolved organic carbon removal than Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 . The TiCl 4 produced larger and stronger flocs but with weaker recoverability and less compact degree than did Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 . Floc properties were independent of AgNP concentration except floc fractal dimension, which was negatively correlated with AgNP concentration. The TiCl 4 precoagulation caused less membrane fouling within wider pH range than Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 did in the C-UF process. Incorporation of AgNPs during the TiCl 4 pretreatment process facilitated the mitigation of membrane fouling, which was, however, negligibly influenced by AgNP concentration in the case of Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .
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