Typologies of Design Practice

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Philosophy of Technology and Engineering Science, 2009, First, pp. 455 - 487
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Design is a. human activity in which we create plans for the creation of artifacts that aim to have value for a prospective user of the artifact, to assist the user in his/her effort to attain certain goals. These goals call be purely functional, or they can encompass a broad array of cultural and social aims. More often than not, these three kinds of goals go together within one problem situation and they result in contradictory requirements to the design. The creative exploration and negotiation of this broad terrain is the expertise of the designer [Cross, 1990; 2006J. The desigu project takes place within a volatile real-world context, where the design situation may change any moment (technological advances, policy changes within the organisation, changes in the market) and system borders are hard to distinguish.
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