Preparation of titanium oxide, iron oxide, and aluminium oxide from sludge generated from Ti-salt, Fe-salt and Al-salt flocculation of wastewater
- Publication Type:
- Journal Article
- Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2009, 15 (5), pp. 719 - 723
- Issue Date:
In this study, the settled floc (sludge) produced by aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ), ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ) and titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) flocculation was recycled with a novel flocculation process, which has a significant potential to the lower cost of waste disposal, protect the environment and public health and yield economically useful by-products. Three coagulants removed 70% of organic matter in synthetic wastewater. The settled floc was incinerated in the range from 100 °C to 1000 °C. Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) which are the most widely used metal oxides were produced from the wastewater sludge generated by the flocculation in wastewater with Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , FeCl 3 and TiCl 4 , respectively. TiO 2 particles produced from the sludge consisted of the large amount of nano size particles. Hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) and grattarolaite (Fe 3 (PO 4 )O 3 or Fe 3 PO 7 ) included the majority of micro size (40%) particles. Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) also consisted of micro size (40%). Due to TiO 2 usefulness of the application, detailed characterisation of TiO 2 after calcination at different temperatures were investigated in terms of X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray, surface area and photoactivity. © 2009 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry.
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