Thalidomide and prednisolone versus prednisolone alone as consolidation therapy after autologous stem-cell transplantation in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: Final analysis of the ALLG MM6 multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 study

Publisher:
Elsevier
Publication Type:
Journal Article
Citation:
The Lancet Haematology, 2014, 1 (3), pp. e112 - e119
Issue Date:
2014-12
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Background: We previously showed that consolidation therapy with thalidomide and prednisolone improved progression-free and overall survival in patients with multiple myeloma who had undergone autologous stem-cell transplantation. We aimed to assess whether these survival advantages were durable at 5 years. Methods: The ALLG MM6 trial was a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial done between Jan 13, 2002, and March 15, 2005, at 29 sites in Australia and New Zealand. Patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated randomisation charts, to receive indefi nite prednisolone maintenance alone (control group) or in combination with 12 months of thalidomide consolidation (thalidomide group) after autologous stem-cell transplantation. Randomisation was stratifi ed by treating centre and pre-transplantation concentrations of ß2 microglobulin. Patients and treating physicians were not masked to treatment allocation. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival and overall survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. Secondary endpoints were overall response to salvage therapy, incidence of second primary malignancy incidence, and cost-eff ectiveness. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12607000382471. Findings: We randomly assigned 269 patients to the thalidomide (n=114) or control group (n=129). After a median followup of 5·4 years (IQR 3·1-7·2), estimated 5-year progression-free survival was 27% (95% CI 23-32) in the thalidomide group and 15% (11-18) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·16, 95% CI 0·044-0·58; p=0·0054) and 5-year overall survival was 66% (95% CI 61-70) and 47% (42-51), respectively (HR 0·12, 95% CI 0·028-0·56; p=0·0072). There was no diff erence in overall response to salvage therapy, survival post-progression, or incidence of secondary malignancies between the two groups. Incremental cost-eff ectiveness ratio was AUS$26 996 per mean life-year gained. Interpretation: Consolidation therapy with thalidomide and prednisolone after autologous stem-cell transplantaion is an acceptable therapeutic approach when alternative drugs are not available.
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